1.指示功能( referential function)

指示功能是指语言对现实世界和虚拟世界中的各种现象进行描述的功能,又称为外延功能( extension

function)或认知功能,如事物的所指关系,英语中的指示代词this, that, these, those 的所指,都是语言的指示功能。

2.指使功能( directive function)

当我们使用语言来指使某人做某事时,此时语言就发挥了指使功能。英语祈使句就是典型的具有指使功能的话语。例如:“ Close the door, please.”“Don't move.”

3. 信息功能( informative function)

信息功能是语言最主要的功能之一。信息功能是语言传递、表达信息的功能,通常是以陈述句表述。信息功能具有辨别性,或真或假。例如,“ He went to NewYork yesterday with his sister.”

4.应酬功能( phatic function)

应酬功能是指人们使用语言是为了建立和维持社会接触而进行的日常寒喧,而不是为了交流信息。例如,打招呼(Hi/Hello)、谈论天气( A nice day,isn't it?)、告别( See you soon.)、问候语( How are you doing?)等。

5. 元语言功(metalinguisticfunction)


6. 疑问功能( interrogative function)

疑问功能是指语言可用来向人提出问题以获得信息。凡是期待回答的问句都具有疑问功能,如“What's your comment?”。

7.表达功能( expressive function)

表达功能是指人们使用语言表达对某事物的感情或态度。在执行表达功能时,语言用来评价、赞扬说话人的态度。最常见的例子就是感叹句,例如:“I'm extremely sorry about that!”




Dear Friends,

I am writing this letter to thank you for you warm hospitality accorded to me during my recent visit to Beijing. I would also like to thank you for your interesting discussion with me which I have found very informative and useful.

During the entire visit, I was overwhelmed by the enthusiasm expressed by you. I sincerely hope we could have more exchanges.

I am looking forward to your early visit to my hometown when I will be able to pay back some of the hospitality I received during my memorable stay in beautiful Beijing. With kind personal regards.

Faithfully yours.


摘要根据内容的不同, 摘要可分为以下三大类: 报道性摘要、指示性摘要和报道,指示性摘要. (1) 报道性摘要(informative abstract): 也常称作信息性摘要或资料性摘要, 其特点是全面、简要地概括论文的目的、方法、主要数据和结论. 通常, 这种摘要可以部分地取代阅读全文. (2) 指示性摘要 (indicative abstract): 也常称为说明性摘要、描述性摘要(descriptive abstract)或论点摘要(topic abstract), 一般只用二三句话概括论文的主题, 而不涉及论据和结论, 多用于综述、会议报告等. 该类摘要可用于帮助潜在的读者来决定是否需要阅读全文. (3) 报道-指示性摘要(informative-indicative abstract): 以报道性摘要的形式表述一次文献中的信息价值较高的部分, 以指示性摘要的形式表述其余部分.


informative adj. 教育性的,有益的;情报的;见闻广博的 网络释义 告知性的 信息量大的 多信息的


text [英] [tekst][美] [tɛkst] n.文本,原文; 课文,教科书; 主题; 版本; v.发短信; [例句] The text is precise and informative. 正文内容准确,信息量大。 [复数]texts



Dear Adrienne,

Welcome to our Team!

It is a pleasure to welcome you to the staff of KC Electronics. We are excited to have you join our team, and we hope that you will enjoy working with our company.

On the first Monday of each month we hold a special staff lunch to welcome any new employees. Please be sure to come next week to meet all of our senior staff and any other new staff members who have joined us this month. Alice Peters will e-mail you with further details.

If you have any questions during your training period, please do not hesitate to contact me. You can reach me at my email address or on my office line at 340-2222.

Warm regards,


Jackie Morris, Sales Manager

Tel: 340-2222


有时在we, I, and you之间选择是很烦的事-- 如果是公司代表联络生意之类,可以用: We will reimburse you for these legal expenses. Sinopec will reimburse you for these legal expenses. 如果单纯说你自己,可以用: I found the brochure very informative.

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